Uzbekistan, which is officially known as the Republic of Uzbekistan, is in Central Asia and has two landmasses. Five nations with no land borders surround it: toward the north, Kazakhstan; to the northeast, Kyrgyzstan; to the southeast, Tajikistan; to the south, Afghanistan; in the southwest, Turkmenistan. Tashkent is the largest and capital of the country. Uzbekistan is a member of the Organization of Turkic States and a part of the Turkic world. The majority of people in Uzbekistan speak Uzbek, but Russian is widely spoken and understood throughout the country. In addition, Tajik is a minority language that is spoken primarily in Samarkand and Bukhara. Uzbekistan is dominated by Islam, with Sunni Muslims making up the majority of the population.
Eastern Iranian nomads known as Scythians were the first known settlers in what is now Uzbekistan. They established kingdoms in Khwarazm (8th–6th centuries BC), Bactria (8th–6th centuries BC), Sogdia (8th–6th centuries BC), Fergana (3rd century BC–6th century AD), and Margiana. Before the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century, the region was ruled by the Iranian Parthian Empire, which was incorporated into the Iranian Achaemenid Empire after a period of Macedonian rule.
The majority of people, including the local ruling classes, were converted to Islam by the early Muslim conquests and the subsequent Samanid Empire. Cities like Samarkand, Khiva, and Bukhara started to get rich from the Silk Road during this time. They became the center of the Islamic Golden Age, where people like Muhammad al-Bukhari, Al-Tirmidhi, al Khwarizmi, al-Biruni, Avicenna, and Omar Khayyam lived.
In the 13th century, the Mongol invasion decimated the local Khwarazmian dynasty, establishing Turkic people as dominant. Timur (Tamerlane), who came from Shahrisabz and established the Timurid Empire in the 14th century, had his capital in Samarkand. Under Ulugh Beg's leadership, Samarkand developed into a center of science and gave rise to the Timurid Renaissance.
In the 16th century, Uzbek Shaybanids conquered the Timurid dynasty's territories, shifting the center of power to Bukhara. There were three states in the region: the Emirate of Bukhara, the Khanate of Khiva, and the Khanate of Kokand. The Mughal Empire was established in India through Emperor Babur's eastern conquests.
Throughout the 19th century, Tashkent became the political capital of Russian Turkestan as the entire region of Central Asia gradually became part of the Russian Empire. The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was established as an independent republic within the Soviet Union in 1924 as a result of national delimitation. On August 31, 1991, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan, just before the Soviet Union broke up.
Uzbekistan is a secular nation governed by a constitutionally elected president. Tashkent City, 12 regions (vilayats), and one autonomous republic, Karakalpakstan, make up Uzbekistan. Even though non-governmental organizations that protect human rights have described Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights," significant reforms have been implemented by Uzbekistan's second president, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, since Islam Karimov, the country's first president, passed away. Relations with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan have significantly improved as a result of these reforms. In a 2020 report, the United Nations found that the Sustainable Development Goals had made significant progress.
The Uzbek economy is gradually moving toward a market economy, and the country's foreign trade policy is based on substituting imports. The country's currency was made fully market-rate convertible in September 2017. Cotton is widely produced and exported by Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan is now Central Asia's largest electricity producer thanks to its ample natural gas supply and enormous power-generation facilities from the Soviet era.
The nation was given a BB- rating by Standard and Poor (S&P) and Fitch from 2018 to 2021. The Brookings Institution points to Uzbekistan's large liquid assets, rapid economic growth, and low public debt as strengths. The low GDP per capita is one of the constraints that keep the republic from moving forward. Uzbekistan is a member of the United Nations, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
1. Accurate Education
Uzbekistan places a high value on education and has recently invested a significant amount of money in bringing its universities and research institutes up to date.
2. Culturally rich heritage
Uzbekistan is known for its ancient cities, such as Bukhara and Samarkand, which are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. It also has a rich cultural heritage.
3. Reasonable Living Costs
Uzbekistan is a popular choice for students because of its low cost of living in comparison to other European and North American nations.
4. Unique Opportunities for Study
Uzbekistan provides one-of-a-kind opportunities to study Islamic studies, Silk Road history, and Central Asian studies.
5. Pleasant People
Uzbekistan is a welcoming location for international students due to its reputation for warmth and friendliness.
6. Ideally Positioned
Students can learn about and experience the cultures of Central Asia and the Caucasus because Uzbekistan is strategically located at the intersection.
1. National University of Uzbekistan
Tashkent, Uzbekistan, is home to the public National University of Uzbekistan. The largest and oldest university in Uzbekistan is NUUz. Mirzo Ulugbek is honored with the name National University of Uzbekistan.
2. Andijan State Medical Institute
In 1955, Andijan State Medical Institute was established in one of the ancient Fergana valley cities. The Institute is currently one of the most prominent institutions in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The institute's scientific potential is steadily increasing.
3. Westminster International University
The first international university in Central Asia and the first in Uzbekistan to offer Western education with British credentials is Westminster International University in Tashkent.
1. Ark, Bukhara
The impressive Ark is Bukhara's oldest structure to date, containing a royal town inside another town. From the 5th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the emir of Bukhara lived in Ark, Bukhara, which was also his home for many centuries. Despite the Red Army's bombing of the structure in 1920, it still evokes royal splendor. Take a trip to the ruins to see the royal quarters that have been preserved and turned into museums.
2. Registan, Samarkand
Registan is a vast, curved medressas located in the center of Samarkand. It is furnished with mosaics, majolica, and spaces that are well-arranged. Registan is home to three magnificent structures that were constructed in accordance with Islamic architecture. It is without a doubt one of the most breathtaking locations in Central Asia. Despite being destroyed by Chinggis Khan, it is still one of the most popular tourist destinations in Uzbekistan and has the oldest medressas in the world. You can see the stunning view at any time during the day
The Amir Timur Museum in Tashkent, which is named after the Mongol emperor Timur, houses more than 5,000 heirlooms that represent the culture and history of the Timurid Dynasty. It wasn't until 1996 that it was officially opened in Tashkent, Uzbekistan's capital. The fact that the Museum was designed to replicate the Gur-e Amir mausoleum in Samarkand is an interesting fact.